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The medically important hinged front-fanged venomous Viperidae have been allocated a separate page of their own. They are now thought to have converged from the main Caenophidian lineage much earlier than previously believed.

Photographic locality. Wherever possible precidence is given to wild specimens from known localitions, wherein the 'photographic locality' relates to the origin of the photographed specimens, rather than the taxon's entire range. The only exceptions are indicated by (captive) or (preserved specimen). These are either specimens photographed in captivity, where the locality given is a general distribution for the taxon, or preserved specimens photographed as biological voucher specimens.

Column D1. Digitized images - the bulk of the library consists of 35mm transparencies (mostly Kodachrome or Velvia) which are gradually being digitized [using Nikon CoolScan 4000 or Plustek OpticFilm 7600i] and stored on hard disc. 'X' indicates that digitized images are available, '[]' indicates that the transparencies of this taxon have yet to be digitized.

Column D2. Digital images - since 2005 digital images have also been taken [using Canon EOS 30D, 40D or 7D]. 'X' indicates that digital images are available in addition to digitized images for this taxon.



Generally three subfamilies are recognised for the Viperidae: the primitive monotypic Azemiopinae, the true vipers of the Viperinae (88 species) and the pitvipers of the Crotalinae (203 species). Some authors treat the night adders as a separate subfamily, the Causinae, but it is not treated as separate here. There has also been a considerable amount of taxonimic splitting in the neotropical lanceheads and this has been adpoted here. All three families are represented in the photo library: Azemiopinae by the one species; Crotalinae by 22 genera with 78 species (101 taxa) , and Viperidae by ten genera and 42 species (50 taxa).

Fea's viper
True vipers
Azemiops feae
Cryptelytrops insularis
Lake Ira Lalaro, Lautem Distr.,
Atheris chlorechis
Central Africa
click on images to enlarge
Azemiopinae Fea's viper Photographed specimen: D1. D2.
Azemiops feae Fea's viper Asia (captive) [] X
Crotalinae Pitvipers      
Agkistrodon bilineatus bilineatus Mexican cantil Mexico (captive) X  
Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix Southern copperhead USA (captive) X  
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus Broad-banded copperhead USA (captive) X  
Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster Osage copperhead USA (Missouri) X  
Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti Florida cottonmouth water moccasin USA (Florida) X  
Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma Western cottonmouth water moccasin USA (Arkansas) X  
Agkistrodon taylori Ornate cantil Mexico (captive) X X
Atropoides mexicanus Central American jumping pitviper Costa Rica X X
Bothriechis marchi March's palm-pitviper Honduras (captive) X  
Bothriechis schlegelii Eyelash palm-pitviper Honduras (Colon), Costa Rica X  
Bothriopsis bilineatus bilineatus Two-striped emerald forest-pitviper Brazil (Amazonas) X  
Bothriopsis taeniatus Speckled forest-pitviper Brazil (Amazonas) X  
Bothropoides alcatraz Alcatrazes lancehead Brazil (Sao Paulo) X  
Bothropoides diporus Chaco lancehead Brazil (Sao Paulo) X  
Bothropoides insularis Golden lancehead Brazil (Sao Paulo) X  
Bothropoides jararaca Jararaca Brazil (Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro) X  
Bothropoides lutzi Cerrado lancehead Brazil (Goias) X  
Bothropoides neuwiedii Neuwied's lancehead Brazil (Sao Paulo) X  
Bothrops asper Terciopelo Honduras (Colon), Costa Rica X  
Bothrops atrox Common lancehead Brazil (Roraima, Amazonas, Pará), Venezuela (Apure), Guyana, Peru (Loreto) X  
Bothrops cf. atrox Trinidad lancehead Trinidad X  
Bothrops brazili Brazil's lancehead Brazil (Amazonas) X  
Bothrops jararacussu Jararacussu Brazil (Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro) X  
Bothrops leucurus Bahia lancehead Brazil (Alagoas) X  
Bothrops moojeni Brazilian lancehead Brazil (Amazonas, Sao Paulo) X  
Calloselasma rhodostoma Malayan pitviper SE.Asia (captive) X  
Crotalus adamanteus Eastern diamondback rattlesnake USA (Florida) X  
Crotalus aquilus Queretaran dusky rattlesnake USA (captive) [] X
Crotalus atrox Western diamondback rattlesnake USA (Arizona) X X
Crotalus basiliscus Mexican west coast rattlesnake Mexico (Sonora) X  
Crotalus catalinensis Santa Catalina rattlesnake Mexico (Baja California Sur) X  
Crotalus cerastes cercobombus Sonoran Desert sidewinder rattlesnake USA (captive) X X
Crotalus cerberus Arizona black rattlesnake USA (captive) [] X
Crotalus culminatus Southwest Mexican rattlesnake Mexico (captive X  
Crotalus durissus durissus Guyanan coastal rattlesnake Guyana (captive) X  
Crotalus durissus collilineatus Central Brazilian rattlesnake S.America (captive) X  
Crotalus durissus cumanensis Venezuelan rattlesnake Venezuela (captive) X  
Crotalus durissus ruruima Roraima rattlesnake Brazil (Roraima) X  
Crotalus durissus terrificus South American rattlesnake S.America (captive) X  
Crotalus durissus trigonicus Rupununi rattlesnake Guyana X  
Crotalus durissus unicolor Aruba Island rattlesnake Aruba (captive) X  
Crotalus durissus vegrandis Uracoan rattlesnake Venezuela (captive) X  
Crotalus enyo enyo Baja California rattlesnake Mexico (captive) X  
Crotalus horridus Timber rattlesnake USA (Wisconsin, Missouri, Arkansas) X X
Crotalus lepidus lepidus Mottled rock rattlesnake USA (captive) X X
Crotalus lepidus klauberi Banded rock rattlesnake USA (Arizona) X X
Crotalus lepidus maculosus Durango rock rattlesnake Mexico (captive) [] X
Crotalus lepidus morulus Tamaulipan rock rattlesnake Mexico (captive) [] X
Crotalus mitchellii mitchellii Speckled rattlesnake USA (captive) X  
Crotalus mitchellii pyrrhus Southwestern speckled rattlesnake USA (captive) X X
Crotalus molossus molossus Northern black-tailed rattlesnake Mexico (Sonora) X X
Crotalus molossus estebanensis San Esteban rattlesnake Mexico (Sonora) X  
Crotalus molossus nigrescens Mexican black-tailed rattlesnake Mexico (Sonora) [] X
Crotalus oreganus oreganus North Pacific rattlesnake USA (captive) X  
Crotalus oreganus abyssus Grand Canyon rattlesnake USA (captive) X X
Crotalus oreganus helleri South Pacific rattlesnake USA (California) X  
Crotalus oreganus lutosus Great Basin rattlesnake USA (captive) [] X
Crotalus oreganus nuntius Hopi rattlesnake USA (captive) [] X
Crotalus polystictus Mexican lancehead rattlesnake Mexico (captive) X X
Crotalus pricei pricei Twin-spotted rattlesnake USA & Mexico (captive) [] X
Crotalus ravus ravus Mexican pygmy rattlesnake Mexico (captive) [] X
Crotalus ruber ruber Red diamond rattlesnake Mexico (Baja California Sur) X  
Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus Mojave rattlesnake USA (New Mexico) X X
Crotalus simus Middle American rattlesnake Costa Rica X  
Crotalus stephensi Panamint rattlesnake USA (captive) X X
Crotalus tigris Tiger rattlesnake USA (Arizona) X X
Crotalus triseriatus triseriatus Western dusky rattlesnake Mexico (captive) [] X
Crotalus viridis viridis Prairie rattlesnake USA (captive) [] X
Crotalus willardi willardi Arizona ridgenose rattlesnake USA & Mexico (Arizona) [] X
Crotalus willardi silus Chihuachuan ridgenose rattlesnake USA & Mexico (captive) [] X
Cryptelytrops albolabris White-lipped pitviper SE.Asia (captive) X  
Cryptelytrops fasciatus Banded pitviper Indonesia (captive) X  
Cryptelytrops insularis Lesser Sunda Islands pitviper Indonesia (Komodo), Timor-Leste X  
Cryptelytrops macrops Big-eyed pitviper Indonesia (captive) X  
Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus Mangrove pitviper SE.Asia (captive) X  
Cryptelytrops venustus Beautiful pitviper Thailand (captive) X  
Deinagkistrodon acutus Chinese copperhead E.Asia (captive) X  
Gloydius saxatilis Rock mamushi E.Asia (captive) X  
Hypnale hypnale Humpnosed pitviper India (Karnataka), Sri Lanka X  
Lachesis muta muta South American bushmaster Trinidad X  
Lachesis muta rhombeata Atlantic coastal bushmaster Brazil (Sao Paulo, Bahia, Alagoas) X  
Lachesis stenophrys Central American bushmaster Costa Rica X  
Ophryacus melanurus Black-tailed horned pitviper Mexico (captive) X  
Parias flavomaculatus mcgregori McGregor's pitviper Philippines (Batanes) X  
Parias hageni Hagen's pitviper Indonesia (Sumatra) (captive) X  
Popeia furcata Siamese peninsula pitviper Thailand (captive) X  
Popeia popeorum Pope's pitviper SE.Asia (captive) X  
Porthidium nasutum Rainforest hognosed pitviper Honduras (Colon), Costa Rica X  
Porthidium ophryomegas Slender hognosed pitviper C.America (captive) X  
Rhinocerophis alternatus Urutu Brazil (Sao Paulo), Argentina (Buenos Aires) X  
Rhinocerophis ammodytoides Patagonian lancehead Argentina (Chubut) X  
Rhinocerophis cotiara Cotiara Brazil (Sao Paulo) X  
Sistrurus catenatus catenatus Eastern massasauga USA (Wisconsin, Illinois) X  
Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus Western massasauga USA (captive) X  
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri Dusky pigmy rattlesnake USA (Florida) (captive) X X
Trimeresurus malabaricus Malabar pitviper India (Karnataka) X  
Trimeresurus puniceus Flat-nosed pitviper Indonesia (Java) (captive) X  
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus Sri Lankan green pitviper Sri Lanka X  
Tropidolaemus subannulatus Borneo temple pitviper Borneo (Sabah) X  
Tropidolaemus wagleri Western temple pitviper SE.Asia (captive) X  
Viridovipera gumprechti Gumprecht's pitviper Thailand (captive) X  
Viridovipera vogeli Vogel's pitviper SE.Asia (captive) X  
Crotalinae: Pitvipers (above)
Bothropoides insularis
Ilha Queimada Grande, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Crotalus catalinensis
Isla Santa Catalina, Sea of Cortez, Mexico
Hypnale hypnale
Nikaweratiya, Sri Lanka
Viperinae: True vipers (below)
Bitis cornuta
Springbok, Namaqualand, N.Cape, S.Africa
Nikaweratiya, Sri Lanka
Vipera berus berus
Angelsey, N.Wales
click on images to enlarge
Viperinae Pitvipers      
Atheris chlorechis Green bushviper Africa (captive) X X
Atheris nitschei Great Lakes bushviper Africa (captive) X  
Atheris squamigera squamigera African bushviper Africa (captive) X  
Bitis arietans arietans Puff adder Ghana, S.Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), Zambia, Namibia, Saudi Arabia X X
Bitis arietans somalica Somali duff adder Somalia (captive) X  
Bitis atropos Berg adder S.Africa (Croatian captive)   X
Bitis caudalis Single horned viper S.Africa (captive) X  
Bitis cornuta Many-horned viper S.Africa (N.Cape) X  
Bitis gabonica East African gaboon viper Cameroon (Southwest), S.Africa (KwaZulu-Natal) X  
Bitis nasicornis Rhinoceros viper Ghana (captive) X X
Bitis peringueyi Namib side-winding adder Namibia (Croatian captive)   X
Bitis rhinoceros West African gaboon viper Ghana (captive) X  
Bitis worthingtoni Kenyan horned viper Kenya (captive) X  
Causus defilippii Snouted night adder Zambia X  
Causus maculatus West African night adder Cameroon (Southwest) X  
Causus rhombeatus Common night adder S.Africa (Mpumalanga, KwaZulu-Natal) X  
Cerastes cerastes cerastes Saharan horned viper Egypt (captive) X X
Cerastes cerastes mutila Moroccan horned viper Morocco (captive) X  
Cerastes gasperettii Arabian horned viper UAE (Sharjah) X X
Cerastes vipera Saharan sand viper N.Africa (captive) X  
Daboia mauritanica Sahara rock viper UAE (captive) X X
Daboia palaestinae Palestine viper   X  
Daboia russelii South Asian Russell's viper Nepal, Pakistan, India (Orissa, Karnataka), Sri Lanka X  
Daboia siamensis South East Asian Russell's viper Thailand X  
Echis carinatus multisquamatus Iranian saw-scale viper Iran (captive) X  
Echis carinatus sinhaleyus Sri Lankan saw-scale viper Sri Lanka (captive) X  
Echis carinatus sockureki Sindh saw-scale viper UAE (Sharjah) X X
Echis coloratus Painted carpet viper Saudi Arabia (captive) X X
Echis jogeri Joger's carpet viper Senegal [] X
Echis leucogaster White-bellied carpet viper Mauritania X  
Echis ocellatus West African carpet viper W.Africa (captive) X  
Echis omanensis Oman carpet viper UAE (Sharjah) X X
Echis pyramidum pyramidum Egyptian carpet viper Saudi Arabia, Sudan (captive) X  
Echis pyramidum leakeyi Kenyan carpet viper Kenya (captive) X X
Macrovipera lebetina obtusa West Asian blunt-nosed W.Asia (captive) X  
Montivipera raddei raddei Radde's Armenian viper Armenia (captive) X  
Montivipera wagneri Wagner's viper Middle East (captive) X  
Montivipera xanthina Ottoman viper Turkey (captive), Greece (Thrace) X X
Proatheris superciliaris Lowland swamp viper SE.Africa (captive) X  
Pseudocerastes fieldi Field's horned viper Middle East (captive) X  
Pseudocerastes persicus Persian horned viper Middle East (captive) X  
Vipera ammodytes ammodytes Western nose-horned viper SE.Europe (captive) []  
Vipera ammodytes meridionalis Transdanubian nose-horned viper SE.Europe (captive) []  
Vipera ammodytes ssp. Nose-horned viper Croatia (Zagreb)   X
Vipera berus berus Northern cross viper UK (Dorset, Surrey, W.Midlands, N.Wales), Croatia (Karlovac-Rijeka) X X
Vipera berus bosniensis Northern cross viper Croatia (Zagreb)   X
Vipera kaznakovi Kaznakov's adder Turkey (Croatian captive)   X
Vipera latastei latastei Lataste's adder Spain (Madrid) X X
Vipera seoanei Iberian cross adder SW.Europe (captive) []  
Vipera ursini macrops Balkan meadow adder Croatia   X